Penalising Anti-Competitive Agreements and Abuse of Dominance
P.K. Basu Majumdar
Volume 7 Issue 3-4 (2014)
With the liberalisation of the economy and trade in India, the new competition law – the (Indian) Competition Act, 2002 – modelled after the European law on competition and the UN Set of Multilaterally Agreed Equitable Principles and Rules for the Control of Restrictive Business Practices, decriminalised antitrust offences, but enhanced the limits of penalties for certain anti-competitive practices. This paper notes that the Competition Commission of India, which has the responsibility of enforcing the Competition Act, has been meting out heavy penalties. But the CCI has often been criticised by the Competition Appellate Tribunal, for not considering relevant factors while calculating fines and not giving reasons for imposing these penalties. It is noted that the law only fixes ceiling limits of penalties. A suggestion has been made by the bar in an appeal matter before the COMPAT to adopt the European/British guidelines on imposing penalty. Predictably, this has not found unconditional acceptance by COMPAT, which has only accepted the proposition of calculating fines based on ‘relevant turnover’. In this paper, I have examined the legal provisions and relevant case laws from the Supreme Court and competition authorities to map the present procedure for setting fines in competition cases in India. I have also analysed the European law on the subject, and explored how these processes can be adopted in India. Can a procedure be devised to bring transparency and predictability to the procedure for setting fines for antitrust offences in India?