Citation Standard

NUJS Citation Style 1st Edition

DOMESTIC MATERIALS

I: CONSTITUTIONS

The Constitution of India

Mention ‘The Constitution of India, 1950’. For specific articles, use the abbreviation ‘Art.’ The year of enactment should be followed by a comma and then the article cited. In the main text of the paper, the complete word ‘Article’ is to be used when referring to the Constitution and the sub-clause to articles must be italicized: for e.g., Article 19(1)(a).

  • The Constitution of India, 1950.

  • The Constitution of India, 1950, Art. 19(1)(a).

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Preamble

Mention ‘The Constitution of India, 1950’. Use the word ‘Preamble’ when referring to any part of the preamble to the Constitution, succeeding a comma. The specific lines being referred to may be quoted within parentheses.

  • The Constitution of India, 1950, Preamble (Justice, social, economic and political).

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Schedules to the Constitution

Mention ‘The Constitution of India, 1950’. Mention the number of the Schedule, Part and Item. It is encouraged that the exact words of the schedule be quoted within parentheses, preceding the full stop.

  • The Constitution of India, 1950, Schedule V, Part B, Item 5(4) (All regulations made under this paragraph shall be submitted forthwith to the President and, until assented to by him, shall have no effect).

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Legislative Entries

Mention ‘The Constitution of India, 1950’. Mention the number of the Schedule, Part, and Item. Whether the entry is in the Union, State or Concurrent Lists must be mentioned before the Item number, in italics. It is encouraged that the exact legislative entry is quoted within parentheses, preceding the full stop.

  • The Constitution of India, 1950, Schedule VII, List I, Union List, Item 22 (Railways).

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 Amending Acts to the Constitution

Mention ‘The Constitution’, and write the number of the Amending Act within parentheses. Where applicable, cite the Section number. These are to be cited in a manner similar to municipal statutes. When citing for example, the statement of objects and reasons, cite the paragraph number being referred to as well. There must be no space between section or paragraph symbols and their respective numbers.

  • The Constitution (Forty Second Amendment) Act, 1976, §12.

  • The Constitution (Forty Second Amendment) Act, 1976, Statement of Objects and Reasons, ¶2.

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Amending provisions of the Constitution

Mention ‘The Constitution of India, 1950’. The Amending Act that introduced the provision should follow the relevant article as follows, succeeding the words ‘inserted vide’ in italics. Within parentheses, mention the date on which the provision came into effect.

  • The Constitution of India, 1950, Art. 21A, inserted vide The Constitution (Eighty Sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 (w.e.f. April 1, 2010).

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Insertion of Schedules to the Constitution

Mention ‘The Constitution of India, 1950’. The Amending Act that introduced the provision should follow the relevant Schedule number as follows, succeeding the words ‘inserted vide’ in italics. Thereafter, within parentheses, mention the date on which the Schedule came into effect.

  • The Constitution of India, 1950, Schedule IX, inserted vide The Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951 (w.e.f. June 18, 1951).

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Amendment to the Schedule

Mention ‘The Constitution of India, 1950’. Mention the number of the Schedule, Part, and Item. Whether the entry is in the Union, State or Concurrent Lists must be mentioned before the Item number, in italics. This is to be followed by the Constitutional Amendment, succeeding the words ‘amended vide’ in italics. Within the parentheses, mention the date on which the Amendment came into effect.

  • The Constitution of India, 1950, Schedule VII, List I, Union List, Item 92, amended vide The Constitution (Sixth Amendment) Act, 1956 (w.e.f. September 9, 1956).

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Pending Constitutional Amendments

Mention ‘The Constitution’. The name of the Bill should be followed by the year of the tabling of the Bill. Refer to the specific clause with the indicator Cl. followed by the clause number.

  • The Constitution (One Hundred and Nineteenth Amendment) Bill, Bill No. XV of 2013, 2014, Cl. 3(a).

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Foreign Constitutions

As far as possible, cite all foreign Constitutions by name. This is followed by the phrase ‘The Constitution of’ and the name of the country to which the Constitution belongs.  Mention the year in which the Constitution came into effect. The symbol for section, article, clause etc. may be used depending on the convention for that particular Constitution.

  • Grundgesetz, The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany, 1949, Art.1.

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II: STATUTES AND RULES

Statute

Mention the name of the Statute and the year it was passed. Use the Section symbol § followed by the Section number without a space. A space is to be used for Order and Rule numbers.

  • The Consumer Protection Act, 1986, §5.

  • The Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, Order 7, Rule 11.

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 Ordinance

Mention the name of the Ordinance and the year it was passed. Use the Section symbol § followed by the Section number without a space. Within parentheses, mention the date of promulgation.

  • The National Food Security Ordinance, 2013, §3 (July 5, 2013).

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Schedules of a Statute

Mention the name of the Statute, followed by the year in which it was passed. Mention ‘Schedule’ and write the Schedule number in Roman numerals. Mention item or article number, if any.

  • The Limitation Act, 1963, Schedule I.  

  • The Companies Act, 1956, Schedule II, Item 3.

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Model Forms annexed to the Statute

Mention the name of the Statute, followed by the Schedule or Annexure number. Then mention the Form number.

  • The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, Schedule I, Form 1.

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 Amending Statute

Mention the name of the Statute (Amendment) Act. Then mention the year. Refer to the specific clause with the indicator Cl. followed by the clause number.

  • The Consumer Protection (Amendment) Act, 2002, Cl. 3.

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Amended provision

Mention the name of the Statute. Then mention the newly inserted or amended Section number, followed by the term ‘inserted vide’ or ‘substituted vide’ in italics. Mention the relevant Amending Act and finally, within parentheses, mention the date on which the provision came into effect.

  • The Consumer Protection Act, 1986, §29(3), inserted vide The Consumer Protection (Amendment) Act, 2002 (w.e.f. March 15, 2003).

  • The Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002, §5(1), substituted vide The Prevention of Money Laundering (Amendment) Act, 2009 (w.e.f. June 1, 2009).

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Statement of Object & Reasons in a Statute

Mention ‘Statement of Object & Reasons of’ in italics followed by the name of the Statute. To cite any specific part of the Statement of Object and Reasons, also quote the relevant part within parentheses.

  • Statement of Object & Reasons of The Consumer Protection Act, 1986.

  • Statement of Object & Reasons of The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 (“An Act to provide for better protection of the interests of the consumers…”).

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Rules

Mention the name of the Rules, along with the date of enactment. This must be followed by the rule number.

  • Income Tax Rules, 1962, Rule 5.

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Schedule or Annexure to Rules

Mention the name of the Rules along with the date of enactment, followed by the Schedule or Annexure number. Then add the specific entry, if applicable.

  • Industrial Dispute (Central) Rules, 1957, Schedule I.

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Model Forms annexed to Rules

Mention the name of the Rules followed by the Schedule or Annexure number. Then mention the Form number.

  • Industrial Dispute (Central) Rules, 1957, Schedule I, Form A.

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Regulations

Mention the name of the Regulations, and then the Regulation number following the indicator ‘Reg.’.

  • SEBI (Mutual Funds) Regulations, 1996, Reg. 3.

  • Foreign Exchange Management (Permissible capital account transactions) Regulations, 2000, Reg. 4.

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Schedule or Annexure to Regulations

Mention the name of the Regulation followed by the Schedule or Annexure number.

  • SEBI (Issue of Capital & Disclosure Requirements) Regulation, 2009, Schedule I.

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Bye Laws

Mention the name of the bye laws of the body or organization or cooperative society. Mention the term ‘Bye Law’ followed by the Bye Law number.

  • Bye Laws of The Bombay Stock Exchange, Bye Law 1(a).

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Bills

Mention the name of the Bill followed by the Bill number. Then mention the clause number following the indicator ‘Cl.’.

  • The Public Procurement Bill, 2012, 58 of 2012, Cl. 10.

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Ministry Notifications

Mention the name of Notifying Ministry, followed by a description of the Notification. Then mention the Notification number, and finally, the date of notification in parentheses.

  • Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Delegation of Powers of Central Government to Regional Director, S.O.1539 (E) (Notified on July 10, 2012).  

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Circulars

Mention the name of the Relevant Authority. Then mention the Circular number and date of issuance in parentheses. The circular name may be included in italics preceding the circular number.

  • Ministry of Corporate Affairs, General Circular No. 1/2014 (Issued on January 15, 2014).

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 Master Circulars

Mention the name of Relevant Authority. Mention ‘Master Circular’, followed by a description of the Master Circular in italics. Then mention the Circular number and date of issuance in parentheses.

  • Reserve Bank of India, Master Circular, Lending to Priority Sector, RBI/2013-14/97 (Issued on July 1, 2013).

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Guidelines

Mention the name of the guideline. Mention the date on which the guideline was issued in parentheses. Then mention the clause number following the indicator ‘Cl.’.

  • SEBI (DIP) Guidelines (August 20, 2009), Cl. 4.3.1.

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Executive Orders

Mention the name of the relevant ministry or authority, followed by the title of the Order. Mention the number of the order, if available. Mention the date on which the order was issued in parentheses.

  • Ministry of Corporate Affairs, CAB Order, F.No.52/26/CAB-2010 (June 30, 2011).

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 Government Policies

Mention the name of the policy, followed by the year in which the policy adopted.

  • National Telecom Policy, 2012, Preamble, ¶ 12.

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Patent & Trademark Manuals

Mention the name of the issuing department or authority, followed by the title of the manual in italics. Mention the page number. Then mention the date on which the manual was last modified in parentheses.

  • Officer of Comptroller General of Design & Trademarks, Manual of Patent Office Practice & Procedure, 14 (March 22, 2011).

  • Officer of Comptroller General of Design & Trademarks, Draft Manual for Trademark Practice & Procedure, 22 (January 23, 2009).

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 Gazette Notifications

Mention the name of the notifying ministry or the relevant department. Mention the notification number. Then mention the date on which the notification was issued in parentheses.

  • Govt. of India, Ministry of Railways, F.No.-2012/TC (CR)/605/4 (January 27, 2014).

  • Govt. of National Capital Territory of Delhi, Dept. of Excise, No.F.10 (5)/FIN (Rev-1)/2013-14/ (December 24, 2013).

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 Illustrations in a Statute

Mention the name of the Statute and the year in which the statute was passed. Then after the words ‘Illustration to’ in italics, mention the section whose illustration is being referred to.

  • Indian Evidence Act, 1872, Illustration to § 43.

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III: CASES, ORDERS & COURT DOCUMENTS

Reported Decisions

Mention the case name that appears at the beginning of the opinion in the cited reporter, by using ‘v.’ to separate the petitioner/plaintiff from respondent/defendant. Then mention the official citation followed by name of the judge in parentheses if necessary. Either page number or paragraph number may be used to pin cite a proposition.

  • Keshavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala, AIR 1973 SC 1461, ¶40 (per A.N. Ray J.).

  • Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, (1978) 1 SCC 248, at 252-53.

  • In Re Harijai Singh & Anr. (1996) 6 SCC 466.

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Unreported Decisions

Mention the case name that appears at the beginning of the opinion in the cited reporter, by using ‘v.’ to separate the petitioner/plaintiff from respondent/defendant. Mention the case number. Then mention the name of the court in parentheses followed by the word ‘Unreported’ in parentheses.

  • George v. Rohit, Cri. App. 4 of 2010 (Bom. H.C.) (Unreported).

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Pending Decisions

Mention the case name by using ‘v.’ to separate the petitioner/plaintiff from respondent/defendant. Mention the case number. Then mention the name of the court in parentheses followed by the word ‘Pending’ in parentheses.

  • Tirthankar v. Das, S.L.P.No.5 of 2006 (S.C.) (Pending).

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 Rulings of Tribunals

Mention the name of the tribunal and then mention the bench and city details in parentheses. Mention the case name that appears at the beginning of the opinion in the cited reporter by using ‘v.’ to separate the petitioner/plaintiff from respondent/defendant. Either the page or paragraph number may be cited. Then mention the date of the ruling in parentheses.

  • National Green Tribunal (Central Zonal Bench, Bhopal), Baboo Lal Jajoo v. Govt. of Rajasthan, 2 (January 1, 2014).

  • Intellectual Property Appellate Board (Circuit Bench, Delhi), Jeet Biri Manufacturing Company Pvt. Ltd. v. Praveen Kumar Singhal, ¶11 (July 26, 2011).

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Orders of Regulatory Bodies

Mention the name of the regulator. Mention the case name by using ‘v.’ to separate the petitioner/plaintiff from respondent/defendant. Mention the case number. Then mention the page or paragraph number being citied.

  • Competition Commission of India, Surinder Singh v. BCCI, Case No.61/2010, ¶4.

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Clarificatory Orders

Mention the name of the authority giving the clarificatory order. Then mention the words ‘requested by’ in italics. Mention the name of the party who sought the clarificatory order. Then mention the date of the clarificatory order in parentheses.

  • Securities & Exchange Board of India requested by MMTC Ltd. (January 3, 2014).

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Court Documents (Plaint, Written Statement, Writ Petition, Amicus Curiae, Affidavit)

After the case name, the document (plaint/written statement/amicus curiae/affidavit) should be described in italics. The relevant paragraph or page number must be mentioned. The name of the court should be stated in parentheses.

  • Saregama India Ltd. v. IPRS, Plaint filed by Saregama India Ltd., T.S.114/2004, ¶6 (Court of Second Civil Judge (Sr-Div.), Barasat).

  • Novartis AG v. Union of India, Written Submission on behalf of the Intervenor (Shamnad Basheer), S.L.P. (C) No. 20549/2009, ¶32 (S.C.).

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Notice or Reply to Notice

Mention the description of document in italics. Mention the issuing party’s name after the word ‘by’ in italics and then mention the receiving party’s name after the word ‘to’ in italics. Then mention the date in parentheses.

  • Legal notice issued by ABC Co. Pvt. Ltd. to Mr. Ram Sharma (January 1, 2014).

  • Reply to Legal Notice by Mr. Ram Sharma to ABC Co. (January 30, 2014).

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 IV: BOOKS AND PERIODICAL MATERIALS

Journal Articles

Each Journal may be cited as per its own prescribed abbreviated form. Other commonly used citations may also be accepted.

  • Rostum J. Neuwirth, The European Union and the Ambivalence Towards the Process of European Integration, 1 NUJS L. Rev. 33 (2008).

  • Bela Bhatia, Judging the Judgment, 30 Economic and Political Weekly (July 23, 2011).

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Books

Mention the name of the author and the book in small caps. Mention the page number. Then mention the year when the book was published within parentheses. The names of co-authors must be mentioned separated by an ampersand (‘&’). In case of more than three authors, cite the first author in order followed by the indicator ‘et al.’.

  • Hardas Singh, Free India 277–78 (2000).

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Books with several editions

Mention the name of the author and the book in small caps. Mention the page number. Then mention the edition of the book and the year when the book was published separated by a comma within parentheses.

  • H.M. Seervai, Constitutional Law of India 460 (4th ed., 2009).

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 Books with several volumes

Mention the name of the author and the book in small caps. Mention the volume number in small caps followed by the page number being cited. Mention the edition of the book and the year when the book was published separated by a comma within parentheses.

  • A. Ramaiya, Guide to the Companies Act, Vol.2 340 (17th ed., 2009).

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Edited Books

Mention the name of the author and the book in small caps. Mention the page number. Then mention the name of the editor, edition of the book and the year when the book was published separated by commas in brackets.

  • V.N. Shukla, Constitution of India, 131 (M.P. Singh, 4th ed., 2008).

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 Articles in Books

Mention the name of the author(s) of the chapter. The first and last names of the authors must be mentioned separated by an ampersand (‘&’). Mention the title of the chapter in italics. Mention ‘in’. Mention the name of the book in small caps. Mention the page number. Then mention the edition of the book and the year when the book was published separated by a comma in brackets.

  • Subha Sarkar & Bharat Sarkar, Sixth Five Year Plan in Fiscal Challenges In The Twentieth Century 121, 123 (2nd ed., 2008).

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Edited Volumes

Mention the name of the author of the chapter. Mention the title of the chapter in italics. Mention ‘in’. Mention the name of the book in small caps. Mention the page number. Then mention the name of the editor, edition of the book and the year when the book was published separated by commas in brackets.

  • Raju Ramachandran, Supreme Court and Basic Structure Doctrine in Supreme but not Infallible: Essays in Honour of The Supreme Court of India 107-33 (B.N. Kirpal, Ashok K. Desai et al, 7th ed., 2000).

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Translated Books

Mention the name of the author and the book in small caps. Mention the page number. Then mention the name of the translator, edition of the book and the year when the book was published separated by commas in brackets.

  • Georges Lefebvre, The Coming of the French Revolution 400 (translated by R.R. Palmer, 2000).

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E-books

Mention the name of the author and the book in small caps. Mention the page number. Mention year when the book was published in brackets. Then mention the uniform resource locator (URL) and the date when it was last visited.

  • P. Kenny, Australian Tax 340 (2014), available at https://store.lexisnexis.com.au/?pageName=relatedProducts&catId=cat1640006&prodId=paueb9780409329872 (Last visited on February 17, 2014).

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Seminal Works

Mention the name of the author in small caps. Mention the name of the book in small caps. Mention the page number. The mention the year when the book was first published in and the year of current publication in brackets separated by a comma.

  • Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan 56 (first published in 1651, 1985).

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Unpublished Books

Mention the name of the author in small caps. Mention the name of the book in small caps. Mention the page number.

  • K V Reddy, Critical Issues in Indian Constitutional Law 550 (unpublished manuscript; on file with author)

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Preface or Introduction of a Book

Mention the name of the author who has written the introduction, preface or foreword. Mention the part (foreword, introduction, preface, etc.) which has been cited in italics.

  • Justice R.V. Raveendran foreword to Abhinav Chandrachud, Due Process of Law 467 (2011).

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Newspaper Articles

Cite the print versions of newspapers with the name of the newspaper in small caps.

  • Sarat Das, India’s Biggest Dream, Times of Bengal (Kolkata) January 30, 2009.

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Magazine Articles

Cite the print versions of magazines with the name of the periodical/magazine in small capitals.

  • Sujata Singh, Elections 2008, The Pacific Fortnightly (Kolkata) April 8, 2002, 43.

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V: REPORTS

Law Commission Reports

Mention ‘Law Commission of India’, and the name of the report. If accessing the report online, also mention the uniform resource locator (URL) and the date when it was last visited at the end.

  • Law Commission of India, Reforms in the Judiciary: Some Suggestions, Report No.230, 8 (January 2009).

  • Law Commission of India, Reforms in the Judiciary: Some Suggestions, Report No.230, 8, (January 2009), available at http://lawcommissionofindia.nic.in/reports/report230.pdf (Last visited on January 2, 2014).

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Committees set up by the Government

Mention the name of either the chairman or the committee in small caps. Mention the title of the report in italics. Mention the page number. Then mention the date when the report was published within parentheses. If the exact date is unavailable, then the month and year or just the year may be cited.

  • Justice J.S. Verma Committee, Report of the Committee on Amendments to Criminal Law, 66 (January 23, 2013).

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Five-year Plans

Mention the name of the body in small caps. Mention the name of the five year plan in italics followed by the years in parentheses. Mention the chapter number. Then mention the paragraph number.

  • Planning Commission, Third Five-Year Plan (1961-1966), Chapter 29, ¶24.

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NGO Reports

Mention the name of the NGO in small caps. Mention the title of the report in italics. Mention the page number. Mention the date when the report was published. If accessing the report online, also mention the uniform resource locator (URL) and the date when it was last visited at the end.

  • People’s Union for Civil Liberties, Custodial Death by Design, 6 (August 2006).

  • People’s Union for Civil Liberties, Custodial Death by Design, 6, (August 2006), available at http://www.pucl.org/major_reports/Custodial_Death_by_Design_Chattisgarh_2006.pdf (Last visited on February 3, 2014).

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Reports by Industry Bodies/Lobby Groups

Mention the name of the industry group and the name of the author (if available) in small caps. Mention the title of the report in italics. Mention the page number followed by the date when the report was published within parentheses. If accessing the report online, also mention the uniform resource locator (URL) and the date when it was last visited at the end.

  • Confederation of Indian Industries (‘CII’), Report on Analysis on Resource Use Management of Small Scale Industries in Adoption of Recommended Technologies-Auto Component Sector, 7 (January 3, 2014).

  • Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (‘FICCI’), Vikram Singh Mehta, Energy Policy: Redesign the Decision Making Architecture, 8, (December 31, 2013), available at http://www.ficci.com/publication-page.asp?spid=20352 (Last visited on February 3, 2014).

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National Census

Mention the Office of the person issuing the census. Mention the name of the country for which the census has been undertaken. Mention the year of the said census. Mention the category in which the said census falls. Then mention the title of the document in italics.

  • Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 2011 Census Data, Population Enumeration Data, Disabled Population by type of Disability, Age & Sex.

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Government Statistics

Mention the name of the government department. Mention the name of sub-department/body issuing/conducting the statistics (if applicable). Mention the law governing the field. Then mention the title of the report in italics.

  • Ministry of Home Affairs, National Crime Records Bureau, Indian Penal Code, Cases Registered & their Disposal Under Dowry Deaths during 2001-02.

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Comments to Reports

Mention the individual or body making the comments. Mention the title of the comments to the report in italics. Mention the page number. Mention that the comments are in response to solicitation of comments (in italics) on the (mentioned) report. Mention the year. If the comments are available online, provide the uniform resource locator (URL) and the date when it was last visited.

  • Arun Sharma, A Critique of SEBI’s Consultative Paper, 8 in response to solicitation of comments on SEBI’s Draft Proposal on Buyback of Shares, 2012.

  • National University of Juridical Sciences, Comments on Draft Competition Policy, 15 in response to solicitation of comments on National Competition Policy, 2011.

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Reports of Parliamentary Committees

Mention the name of the Parliamentary Committee in small caps. Mention the session number. Mention the title of the report in italics followed by the report number Mention the paragraph number. Then mention the date. If the report is available online, provide the uniform resource locator (URL) and the date when it was last visited.

  • Standing Committee on Urban Development, Fifteenth Lok Sabha, Report on The Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood & Regulation of Street Vending) Bill, 2012, Twenty Third Report, ¶3.1.1 (March 2013).

  • Standing Committee on Urban Development, Fifteenth Lok Sabha, Report on The Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood & Regulation of Street Vending) Bill, 2012, Twenty-Third Report, ¶3.1.1 (March 2013), available at http://www.prsindia.org/uploads/media/Street%20Venders%20Bill/SCR%20on%20Street%20Vendors%20Bill.pdf (Last visited on February 5, 2014).

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Annual Reports of Government Bodies or Governmental Departments

Mention name of the government body or department. Mention the title of the report in italics. Mention year, and the page number.

  • Press Council of India, Annual Report 2011-12, 40.

  • Ministry of Labour and Employment, Annual Report 2012-13, 42.

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National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution

Mention the name of the report and the page number, followed by the year within parentheses.

  • Report of the National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution 142 (2002).

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Report of Advisory Bodies

Mention name of the Advisory Body in small caps. Mention title of the report in italics (including the date of the report). Mention page number. If the report is available online, provide the uniform resource locator (URL) and the date when it was last visited.

  • National Advisory Council (‘NAC’), Report for the Period June 2010-May 2012, 5-11, available at http://nac.nic.in/pdf/en_report_june2010_july2013.pdf (Last visited on February 5, 2014).

 

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Enquiry Committees

Mention name of the committee in small caps. Mention the title in italics. Mention the page number. Then mention the year.

  • Justice Nanavati Commission of Inquiry, 1984 Anti-Sikh Riots, 30-33 (2005).

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VI: Documents Related to Companies

Articles of Association of a Company/Body Corporate

Mention the name of the Company or Corporate Body. Mention the title of the Articles of Association in italics as stated. Then, mention the Article number of the article you wish to cite. Finally, state the date, if any within parentheses.

  • Indian Performing Rights Society, Articles of Association, Art. 5 (March 1, 1995).

  • Tata Motors Ltd., Articles of Association, Art. 6 (January 1, 1960).

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Memorandum of Association

Mention the name of the Company. Then put in the Memorandum of Association in italics. After this, state the clause number within the MOA. Finally, state the date, if any within parentheses.

  • Indian Performing Rights Society, Memorandum of Association, Clause 5 (March 1, 1995).

  • Tata Motors Ltd., Memorandum of Association, Clause 8 (January 1, 1960).

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Notice of Meetings (Shareholders/ Board meetings)

Mention the name of the Company. Then, mention the notice of meetings you wish to cite in italics. Cite the date attached to the said notice. Finally, cite the uniform resource locator (URL) from which you obtained the notice.

  • Tata Motors Ltd., Notice, May 29, 2013, available at http://tatamotors.com/investors/financials/68-ar-html/notice.html (Last visited on February 5, 2014).

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Annual Report of Company

Mention the name of the company whose annual report you wish to cite. Then mention the title of the Annual Report in italics followed by the page number of the report. Finally, cite the uniform resource locator (URL) from which you obtained the annual report and the date of last visit.

  • Tata Consultancy Services, Annual Report 2011-12, 320, available at http://www.tcs.com/investors/Documents/Annual%20Reports/TCS_Annual_Report_2012-2013.pdf (Last visited on February 5, 2014).

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Minutes

Write down the name of the Company, whose minutes of a meeting you wish to cite. Then state the type of meeting you are citing, in italics. Mention the date of the meeting. Finally, cite the uniform resource locator (URL) from which you obtained the annual report. Put in the last date of visit for the concerned website.

  • Tata Consultancy Services, Minutes of the Board of Director’s Meeting held on July 12, 2011, available at http://www.thecoastalsociety.org/pdf/minutes/071211TCSBoardMeetingMinutes.pdf (Last visited on February 5, 2014).

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Resolutions

Mention the name of the company. State the nature of the resolution. Then mention the ‘Resolution No’. Finally, mention the date.

  • Mukand Limited, Special Resolution, Res. No. 550 (September 18, 2013).

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 Letters

First write ‘Letter sent by’ in italics. Then put the name of the party sending the letter. Follow this with ‘& addressed to’, in italics again followed by the name of the receiving party. Finally, mention the relevant date within parentheses. If the letter is available online, mention the URL and the date of last visit.

  • Letter sent by Javed Akhtar & addressed to The Indian Performing Rights Society and all its publisher members (September 23, 2009).

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Disclosures or Draft letters submitted to regulatory authorities, stock exchanges, etc.

Mention the name of the company. State the title of disclosure. Mention ‘submitted to’ in italics. Then state the name of the authority or regulator.  Then mention the page number. State the date. Finally, mention the URL.

  • Mukand Limited, Draft Letter of Offer for Rights Issue submitted to Securities & Exchange Board of India (SEBI), 80 (September 18, 2013), available at http://www.sebi.gov.in/sebiweb/home/list/3/16/13/0/Draft-Letters-of-Offer-filed-with-SEBI (Last visited on February 5, 2014).

  • Adani Ports & Special Economic Zones Limited, Red Herring Prospectus submitted to Registrar of Companies (ROC), 66 (May 31, 2013), available at http://www.sebi.gov.in/sebiweb/home/list/3/15/11/0/Red-Herring-Documents-filed-with-ROC (Last visited on February 5, 2014).  

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VII: LEGISLATIVE & OFFICIAL PROCEEDINGS

Constituent Assembly Debates

Mention ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’ followed by the book number and then the date. Mention ‘speech by’ in italics and then the name of the speaker. Put the page number and year in parentheses.

For the online version, omit the book number and year of publication. Instead, Mention the URL after the page number, and mention in parentheses the date it was last visited.

  • Constituent Assembly Debates, Book No. 1, December 13, 1946 speech by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru 60 (1999).

  • Constituent Assembly Debates, December 13, 1946 speech by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru 60, available at http://parliamentofindia.nic.in/ls/debates/vol1p5.htm (Last visited on February 27, 2014).

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Parliamentary Questions or Speeches

Mention the name of the House in small caps. State the title of the session in italics. Mention the session number. Then mention the date of the session. Mention the nature of intervention in italics. Mention the name of the speaker. Mention the URL. Finally, mention the date it was last visited in parentheses.

  • Rajya Sabha Debates, The Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Bill, 2013, 101, Session Number 229, 7 September, 2013, comments by Shri D. Raja available at http://rsdebate.nic.in/bitstream/123456789/625956/2/PD_229_07092013_p89_p121_9.pdf#search=null 2013 09 07 (Last visited on February 24, 2014).

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Parliamentary Debates

Mention the name of the House in small caps. State the title of the session in italics. Mention the page number. Then mention the session number. Mention the date of session. Mention the URL. Finally, mention the date it was last visited in parentheses.

  • Rajya  Sabha Debates, The Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Bill, 2013, 96, Session Number 229, September 7, 2013, available at http://rsdebate.nic.in/bitstream/123456789/625956/2/PD_229_07092013_p89_p121_9.pdf#search=null 2013 09 07 (Last visited on February 24, 2014).

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Minutes of Meetings of Official Bodies

Mention the name of the department. State the minutes of the type of meeting in italics. Then state the date. Mention the URL. Finally, mention the date it was last visited in parentheses.

  • Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Minutes of the 26th Meeting of the Coordination and Monitoring Committee on Vanishing Companies, November 20, 2012, available at http://www.mca.gov.in/Ministry/vanish/Minutes_of_the_26th_Meeting_CMC.pdf (Last visited on February 27, 2014).

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VIII: MISCELLANEOUS

Online Materials

Mention the name of the author (or the news agency when citing a news article) of the material. Mention the title in italics as on the webpage. Mention the date of the material where available. Then mention the uniform resource locator (URL) and the date when it was last visited. Where author information is not available, begin the citation from the title. If no clear title is discernible then cite the title as shown in the Title Bar of the web browser.

  • Indo Asian News Service, India Elect to Bat Against Sri Lanka in Second ODI, January 31, 2009, available at http://beta.cricket.yahoo.com/cricket/news/article?id=item/2.0/-/cricket.indiaabroad.com/16c6e68269c8a654c3397c389d18a755/ (Last visited on January 31, 2009).

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Dictionaries

Mention the title of the dictionary in small caps. Mention the page number. State the edition and year in parentheses.

  • Black’s Law Dictionary 55 (12th ed., 2009).

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Encyclopaedias

Mention the title of the encyclopaedia in small caps. Mention the volume, with the numeral in square brackets. Insert the paragraph symbol. Mention the paragraph number. In case the paragraph number is not available, state the page number. Mention the edition and year of publication in parentheses.

  • Halsbury’s Laws of England [2] ¶20 (4th ed., 2006).

  • Encyclopedia of Library and Information Services [6] 4183 (3rd ed., 2010).

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Movies

Mention the title of the movie in small capitals. Mention the name of the producer or producing company, and the year of release in parentheses.

  • Erin Brockovich (Warner Brothers, 2000).

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Television Serials

Mention the title of the show in italics. Mention the name of the producer or producing company, and the date of broadcast of the episode in the originating country in parentheses.

  • Suits (USA Network, June 23, 2011).

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Videos

Mention the title of the video in italics. Mention the date. State the URL. Finally, state the date it was last accessed in parentheses.

  •  Rules of the M&A Game-Acquirer Point of View Part 1, November 8, 2012, available at http://thefirm.moneycontrol.com/video_page.php?autono=612916&video_flag=1 (Last visited on April 4, 2012).

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E-mail

Mention ‘E-mail from’, in italics, followed by the name of the sender. State the designation or affiliation of the sender, if any. Mention ‘to’, in italics, followed by the name of recipient.  State the designation or affiliation of the recipient, if any. Mention ‘dated’, in italics, followed by the date when the email was sent.

  • E-mail from Editorial Board, NUJS Law Review to Mr. Sumeet Malik, Director, EBC Publishing Pvt. Ltd. dated July 26, 2011.

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Letters

Mention ‘Letter from’ in italics followed by the name of the sender. State the designation or affiliation of the sender, if any. Mention ‘to’, followed by the name of recipient.  State the designation or affiliation of the recipient, if any. Mention ‘dated’ followed by the date, Mention ‘on file with the author’ in parentheses. If available online, state the URL. Then state the date last visited in parentheses.

  • Letter from the Editorial Board, NUJS Law Review to Mr. Sumeet Malik, Director, EBC Publishing Pvt. Ltd. dated July 26, 2011 (on file with authors).

  • Letter from Upendra Baxi et al. to the Chief Justice of India dated September 16, 1979, available at http://pldindia.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Open-Letter-to-CJI-in-the-Mathura-Rape-Case.pdf  (Last visited April 4, 2012).

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Press Releases

Mention ‘Press Release’. Mention the name of the body or institution. State the date. Mention the URL. Finally, mention the date it was last accessed in parentheses.

  • Press Release, News Broadcaster’s Association, March 23, 2013, available at http://www.nbanewdelhi.com/images/uploadfile/45_PRESS_RELEASE_23-3-13.pdf (Last visited on April 4, 2012).

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Symposia

Mention the title of the symposium and a description of where it was published.

  • Symposium, Terrorism and National Security, 2 NUJS L. Rev. 19 (2009).

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Unpublished Manuscripts

Mention the name of the author. State the title in italics. Mention the date in parentheses. Mention ‘unpublished’, followed by the type of manuscript in parentheses. Finally mention ‘on file with author’ in parentheses.

  • William Bush, War against Smuggling (August 15, 2008) (unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata) (on file with author).

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Religious texts or scriptures

Mention the name of the scripture. State the chapter number or name of the chapter. Mention the verse, if any.

  • The Rig Veda, Samhita, Mandal 10.

  • The Quran, Chapter 9, Verse 5.

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Working Papers

Mention the name of the author, followed by the title of the paper and description as well as the year of the working paper. If available, provide a URL.

  • Abhay Agarwal, Annual Report on Professional Relations 16-17 (NUJS Pub. Law & Legal Theory Working Paper Group, Paper No. 12, 2000).

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Memorandums

Mention the party sending the memorandum and party receiving it. Then, mention the date of the memorandum within parentheses.

  • Memorandum from the NUJS Law Review Board to the Vice Chancellor, NUJS (September 30, 2008) (on file with author).

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Speeches

State the name and designation of the person delivering the speech followed by a description of the speech and the date on which it was delivered.

  • Anil Das, Chairman, Federal Relations Committee, Keynote Address at the NUJS Law Review Symposium: Basic Structure of the Constitution (March 2, 2008).

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INTERNATIONAL MATERIALS

UN Sources

General Assembly

Mention the General Assembly Resolution title. Mention the exact paragraph number referred to. Mention the Resolution Number followed by the date adopted in parentheses.

  • G.A. Res.47/1, ¶33, U.N. Doc. A/RES/47/1 (September 22, 1992).

  • Universal Declarations of Human Rights, G.A. Res. 217A, U.N. Doc. A/810 (December12, 1948).

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Security Council Resolutions

Mention the Security Council Resolution title. Mention the paragraph number referred to. Mention the Resolution Number followed by the date adopted in parentheses.

  • S.C. Res. 508, ¶9, U.N. Doc. S/RES/508 (June 5, 1982).

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UN Reports

Mention the organ/committee/commission etc. which drafted the report. Mention the title of the report. Mention the report number followed by the date in parentheses.  

  • United Nations Economic and Social Council [ECOSOC], Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, Working Group on Minorities, Working Paper: Universal and Regional Mechanisms for Minority Protection, ¶17, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/AC.5/1999/WP.6 (May 5, 1999).

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Cases

Mention the name of the case. Mention the case number including the Court and the year.

  • Diversion of Water from Meuse (Neth. v. Belg.), 1937 P.C.I.J. (ser.A/B) No. 70, 7.

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Reports from conferences

Mention the title of the Conference followed by the date. Mention the title of the report. Mention the exact paragraph number cited. Mention the report number followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

  • World Conference on Human Rights, June 14-25, 1993, Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, ¶37, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.157/23 (July 12, 1993).

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WTO panel and Appellate Body Materials

Mention whether the report is by the Panel or the Appellate Body. Then mention the full name of the report. Mention the paragraph number, the name of the WTO document and finally the date in parentheses.

  • Panel Report, Republic of Korea – Restrictions on Imports of Beef – Complaint by Australia, ¶19, L/6504 – 36S/202 (May 24, 1989 adopted on November 7, 1989).

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General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Panel Decisions

Mention whether the report is by the Panel or the Appellate Body. Then mention the full name of the report. Mention the paragraph number, the name of the WTO document and finally the date.

  • Report of the Panel, Japan – Restrictions on Imports of Certain Agricultural Products, ¶5.2.2, L/6253, GATT B.I.S.D. (35thSupp.) (February 2, 1988).

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Treaties

Treaty among Three or Fewer Parties

Mention the title of the treaty. Mention the parties to the treaty in parentheses. Mention the date of the treaty followed by its citation.

  • Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Estates, Inheritances, and Gifts (U.S., Canada and Mexico), November 24, 1978, 32 U.S.T. 1935.

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Treaty among More Than Three Parties:

Mention the title of the treaty. Mention the date of adoption. Mention the citation.

  • North Atlantic Treaty, April 4, 1949, 63 Stat. 2241, 34 U.N.T.S. 243.

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Statutes of Foreign Jurisdictions

Mention the title of the statute followed by the year. Mention the jurisdiction in parentheses.

  • Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, 2000 (U.S.A.).

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OTHER CITATION STANDARDS

Paragraph & Section Symbols

If a particular paragraph (¶) or section (§) of an authority is referred to, it should be cited in the following manner:

  • See Keshavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala, AIR 1973 SC 1461, ¶2210.

  • See The Indian Penal Code, 1860, §56.

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Quotations

Original Quotations

Original quotations are to be kept within double quotation marks and retained in their original form without any italicisation.

  • Dr. Ambedkar noted the Constituent Assembly’s resolve “to ensure that ‘rule of law as a basic tenet of constituent democracy’ must be preserved at all costs.”36

 

36 Constituent Assembly Debates, Vol. VIII, 122-4 (quoting M.K. Gandhi, My Experiments with Truth, 224 (1993)).

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Quotations within quotations

Whenever possible, a quotation within a quotation should be attributed to its original source.

  • Constituent Assembly Debates, Vol. VIII, 122-4 (quoting M.K. Gandhi, My Experiments with Truth, 224 (1993)).

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Speaking Footnotes or Explanatory Parentheticals

Explanations to footnotes should be inside parentheticals.

  • 35 See also Rostum J. Neuwirth, The European Union and the Ambivalence towards the Process of European Integration, 1 NUJS L. Rev. 33, 43 (2008) (discussing the problems to European integration).

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SHORT CITATION FORMS

Supra

When an authority has been fully cited previously, the “supra” form may be used. The “supra” form generally consists of the last name of the author of the work, followed by a comma and the word “supra”. Volume, paragraph, section or page numbers may be added to refer to the specific material. “Supra” may not be used to refer to cases, statutes, constitution and legislative materials.

 

  • Seervai, supra note 10, 6.

  • See supra text accompanying notes 205-207.

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Hereinafter

For authority that would be too long to cite repeatedly with the usual “supra” or for which the regular shortened form would confuse the reader, a special short form may be established. After the first citation of the authority, but before any explanatory parenthetical place the special shortened form within single quotes in brackets.

  • 34 Proposed Amendments to the Code of Criminal Procedure: Hearings Before the Central Administrative Reforms Committee, 12th Conference. 92-93 (1977) (‘Hearings’).

  • 38 Hearings, supra note 34, 33.

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Infra

Infra is Latin for “underneath”, “below” or “beneath” and is short-hand symbol used to indicate that the cited authority will be referred to or discussed later in the document. Apart from facilitating cross referencing, this citation informs the user that a particular authority will be explored further in later sections of the article and hence improve lucidity and ease of reading. In terms of usage, it contrasts directly with Supra.

  • 37 See discussion infra Part II.B.2, III.C.1.

  • 35 See infra 106-107.

  • 143 Seervai, infra note 10, 6.

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Id

Id., short for “Idem” meaning “same” in Latin, is a citation symbol used to refer to the authority cited immediately prior to the current one. Id., helps the author avoid citing the same authority again and again within a short space of words and at the same time, reduces the clutter of repeated citations and also makes it more convenient for the reader. Id., as a citation symbol, may be used to identically refer to the immediately previous authority, or to pin-cite a different paragraph or page.